green Hass Avocados fruit hanging in the tree

Persea americana

Avocado (Wikipedia)

Temporal range: 15–0 Ma Middle Miocene – Recent
Close-up picture of foliage and avocado fruit
Avocado fruit and foliage, Réunion island
Avocado with cross section edit.jpg
Scientific classification edit
P. americana
Binomial name
Persea americana
  • Laurus persea L.
  • Persea americana var. angustifolia Miranda
  • Persea americana var. drymifolia (Cham. & Schltdl.) S.F.Blake
  • Persea americana var. nubigena (L.O.Williams) L.E.Kopp
  • Persea drymifolia Cham. & Schltdl.
  • Persea edulis Raf.
  • Persea floccosa Mez
  • Persea gigantea L.O.Williams
  • Persea gratissima C.F.Gaertn.
  • Persea gratissima var. drimyfolia (Schltdl. & Cham.) Mez
  • Persea gratissima var. macrophylla Meisn.
  • Persea gratissima var. oblonga Meisn.
  • Persea gratissima var. praecox Nees
  • Persea gratissima var. vulgaris Meisn.
  • Persea leiogyna Blake
  • Persea nubigena L.O.Williams
  • Persea nubigena var. guatemalensis L.O.Williams
  • Persea paucitriplinervia Lundell
  • Persea persea (L.) Cockerell
  • Persea steyermarkii C.K.Allen

The avocado (Persea americana), a tree likely originating from southcentral Mexico, is classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae. The fruit of the plant, also called an avocado (or avocado pear or alligator pear), is botanically a large berry containing a single large seed.

Commercially valuable with production increasing worldwide over 2018-26 at 10% per year, avocados are cultivated in tropical and Mediterranean climates of many countries. The fruit of domestic varieties has a buttery flesh when ripe. Depending on the variety, avocados have green, brown, purplish, or black skin when ripe, and may be pear-shaped, egg-shaped, or spherical. Commercially, the fruits are ripened after harvesting.

Avocado trees are partially self-pollinating, and are often propagated through grafting to maintain predictable fruit quality and quantity. In 2019, Mexico was the world's leading producer of avocados, supplying 32% of the global total.

Avocado (Wiktionary)



Borrowed from American Spanish avocado, altered—by folk-etymological association with abogado (lawyer)—from the earlier aguacate, which comes from Classical Nahuatl āhuacatl (avocado). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?) Doublet of abacate.

The first mention can be found in the 1696 catalogue of Jamaican plants.


  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ævəˈkɑːdəʊ/
  • (General American) enPR: ăvəkäʹdō, IPA(key): /ɑvəˈkɑdoʊ/, [ɑvəˈkɑɾoʊ],
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